ATPL Syllabus for Examination for Issue of Airline Transport Pilot’s Licence and Instrument Rating – Aeroplanes

Radio Aids & Instrumentation

Radio Aids

  • Ground D/F (including classification of bearings)
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy
  • ADF (including associated beacons and use of the radio magnetic indicator)
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy
  • VOR and Doppler – VOR (including the use of the radio magnetic indicator)
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy
  • DME (distance measuring equipment)
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy
  • ILS (Instrument Landing System)
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy

b) Basic Radar Principles

  • Pulse techniques and associated terms – latitude and longitude
  • Ground Radar
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy
  • Airborne weather radar
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • coverage
    • range
    • errors and accuracy
    • factors affecting range and accuracy
    • application for navigation
  • SSR secondary surveillance radar and transponder
    • principles
    • presentation and interpretation
    • modes and codes, including mode S
  • Use of radar observations and application to in-flight navigation

c) Area Navigation System

  • General philosophy
    • use of radio navigation systems or an inertial navigation system
  • Typical flight deck equipment and operation
    • means of entering and selecting waypoints and desired course information (keyboard entry system)
    • means of selecting, tuning and identifying ground stations
    • instrumentation for en-route course guidance
    • for some types of systems, instrumentation for presenting distance traveled, distance to go and, if necessary, ground speed information
    • instrumentation for presenting current position data
    • flight detector and autopilot coupling
  • Instrument indications
  • Types of area navigation system inputs
    • self-contained on-board systems (IRS/IRS systems)
    • external sensor systems (VOR/DME, GPS)
    • air data inputs (true airspeed, altitude, magnetic heading)
  • VOR/DME area navigation (RNAV)
    • principle of operation
    • advantages and disadvantages
    • accuracy, reliability, coverage
    • flight deck equipment
  • Flight director and autopilot coupling

d) Self-contained and external-referred navigation systems

  • Satellite assisted navigation: GPS/GLONASS
    • principle of operation
    • advantages and disadvantages

e) Inertial Navigation/Reference System (INS/IRS)

  • Principles and practical application
    • gyroscopic principles
    • platform mounting
    • accelerometer principles
    • integrator principles
    • shuller-tuned platform
    • navigation computer
    • strap down system
  • Alignment procedures
    • gyrocompassing
    • leveling
  • Accuracy, reliability, errors and coverage
  • Flight Check equipment and operation
    • mode selector unit (MSU)
    • control display unit (CDU)
    • horizontal situation indicator (HIS)
    • INS operation
  • Normal flight, position and waypoint entries
  • Flight Plan changes
  • Bypassing waypoint
  • Change of waypoint data
    • system check and updating


Flight Instruments

  1. Air data instruments
    • pitot and static system
    • pitot tube, construction and principles of operation
    • static source
    • malfunction
    • heating
    • alternate static source
  • Altimeter
    • construction and principles of operation
    • display and setting
    • errors
    • correction tables
    • tolerances
  • Airspeed indicator
    • construction and principles of operation
    • speed indications (IAS)
    • meaning of coloured sectors
    • maximum speed indicator, VMO, MMO pointer
    • pointer
  • Mach meter
    • mach number formula
    • construction and principles of operation
    • display
    • errors
  • Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
    • aneroid and instantaneous VSI (IVSI)
    • construction and principles of operation
    • display
  • Air Data Computer (ADC)
    • principles of operation
    • input and output data, signals
    • uses of output data
    • block diagram
    • system monitoring
  1. Gyroscopic instruments
  • Gyro fundamentals
    • theory of gyroscopic forces (stability, precession)
    • types, and principles of operation:
      • vertical gyro
      • directional gyro
      • rate gyro
      • rate integrating gyro
      • single degree-of-freedom gyro
      • ring laser gyro
  • apparent drift
  • random drift
  • mountings
  • drive types, monitoring
  • Directional gyro
    • principles of operation
  • Slaved gyro compass
    • principles of operation
    • components
    • mounting and modes of operation
    • turn and acceleration errors
    • application, uses of output data
  • Attitude indicator (vertical gyro)
    • principles of operation
    • display types
    • turn and acceleration errors
    • application, uses of output data
  • Turn and bank indicator (rate gyro)
    • principles of operation
    • display types
    • application error
    • application, uses of output data
    • turn coordinator
  • Gyro stabilized platform (Gimballed platform)
    • types in use
    • accelerometer, measurement systems
    • construction of principles of operation
    • platform alignment
    • application, uses of output data
  • Fixed installations (strap down systems)
    • construction and principles of operation
    • types in use
    • input signals
    • application, uses of output data
  1. Magnetic Compass
    • construction and principles of operation
    • errors (deviation, effect of inclination)
  1. Radio Altimeter
    • components
    • frequency band
    • principle of operation
    • displays
    • errors

2.2 Automatic Flight Control Systems

  1. Flight Director
    • function and application
    • block diagram, components
    • mode of operation
    • operation set-up for various flight phases
    • command modes (bars)
    • mode indicator
    • system monitoring
    • limitations, operational restrictions
  1. Autopilot
    • autoland, sequence of operation
    • system concepts for autoland, go-around, take-off, fail passive, fail operational (redundant)
  1. Basic concepts of the following
    • Flight envelope protection
    • Yaw Damper / Stability Augmentation System
    • Automatic Pitch Trim
    • Auto-thrust

2.3 Warning and Recording Equipment

  1. Warnings general
    • classification of warning
    • display, indicator systems
  1. Altitude Alert System
    • function
    • block diagram, components
    • operation and system monitoring
  1. Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS)
    • function
    • block diagram, components
    • input data, signals
    • system integrity test
  1. Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)
    • function
    • warning modes
  1. Over-speed Warning
    • function
    • input data, signals
    • display, indicators
    • function test
    • effects on operation in case of failure
  1. Stall Warning
    • function
    • constituent components of a simplified system
    • block diagram, components of a system with angle of attack indicator
    • operation
  1. Flight Data Recorder (FDR)
    • function
    • block diagram, components
    • operation
    • system monitoring
  1. Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR)
    • function
    • block diagram, components
    • operation

2.4 Power Plant and System Monitoring Instruments

  1. Pressure Gauge
    • sensors
    • pressure indicators
    • meaning of coloured sectors
  1. Temperature Gauge
    • ram rise, recovery factor
  1. RPM Indicator
    • interfacing of signal pick-up to RPM gauge
    • RPM indicators, piston and turbine engines
    • meaning of coloured sectors
  1. Consumption Gauge
    • high pressure line fuel flow-meter (function, indications, failure warnings)
  1. Fuel Gauge
    • measurement of volume / mass, units
    • measuring sensors
    • content, quantity indicators
    • reasons for incorrect indications
  1. Torque Meter
    • indicators, units
    • meaning of coloured sectors
  1. Flight Hour Meter
    • drive source
    • indicators
  1. Vibration Monitoring
    • indicators, units
    • interfacing to bypass turbofan engine
    • warning system
  1. Electronic Displays
    • EFIS
    • EICAS
    • ECAM
    • FMS

Basic radio propagation theory

  • Basic principles
    • electromagnetic waves
    • wavelength, amplitude, phase angle, frequency
    • frequency bands, sideband, single sideband
    • pulse characteristics
    • carrier, modulation, demodulation
    • kinds of modulation (amplitude, frequency, pulse, multiplex)
    • oscillation circuits
  • Antennas
    • characteristics
    • polarization
    • types of antennas
  • Wave propagation
    • ground wave
    • space waves
    • propagation with the frequency bands
    • frequency prognosis (MUF)
    • fading
    • factors affecting propagation (reflection, absorption, interference, twilight, shoreline, mountain, static)
Air Navigation

Basics of Navigation

  • The solar system
    • seasonal and apparent movements of the sun
  • The earth
    • great circle, small circle, rhumb line
    • convergency, conversion angle
    • latitude, difference of latitude
    • longitude, difference of longitude
    • use of latitude and longitude co-ordinates to locate any specific position
  • Time and time conversions
    • apparent time
    • UTC
    • LMT
    • standard times
    • international dateline
  • Directions
    • terrestrial magnetism: declination, deviation and compass variations
    • magnetic poles, isogonals, relationship between true and magnetic
  • Distance
    • units of distance and height used in navigation: nautical miles, statute miles, kilometers, metres, yards and feet
    • conversion from one unit to another
    • relationship between nautical miles and minutes of latitude

b) Magnetism and Compasses

  • General principles
    • terrestrial magnetism
    • resolution of the earth’s total magnetic force into vertical and horizontal components
    • the effects of change of latitude on these components
    • directive force
    • magnetic dip
    • variation
  • Aircraft magnetism
    • hard iron and vertical soft iron
    • the resulting magnetic fields
    • the variation in directive force
    • Change of deviation with change of latitude and with change in aircraft’s heading
    • turning and acceleration errors
    • keeping magnetic materials clear of the compass
    • knowledge of the principles, standby and landing or main compasses and remote reading compasses
    • detailed knowledge of the use of these compasses
    • serviceability tests
    • advantages and disadvantages of the remote indicating compasses
    • adjustment and compensation of direct reading magnetic compass

c) Charts

  • General properties of the miscellaneous type of projections
    • Mercator
    • Lambert conformal conic
    • Polar stereographic
    • Transverse Mercator
    • Oblique Mercator
  • The representation of meridians, parallels, great circles, and rhumb lines
    • direct Mercator
    • Lambert conformal conic
    • Polar Stereographic
  • The use of current aeronautical charts
    • plotting positions
    • methods of indicating scale and relief
    • conventional signs
    • measuring tracks and distances
    • plotting bearings

d) Dead Reckoning Navigation (DR)

  • Basics of dead reckoning
    • track
    • heading (compass, magnetic, true, grid)
    • wind velocity
    • airspeed (IAS, CAS, TAS, Mach number)
    • ground speed
    • ETA
    • drift, wind correction angle
    • DR-position, fix
  • Use of the navigational computer
    • speed
    • time
    • distance
    • fuel consumption
    • conversions
    • heading
    • airspeed
    • wind velocity
  • The triangle of velocities, methods of solution for the determination of
    • heading
    • ground speed
    • wind velocity
    • track and drift angle, track error
    • time and distance problems
  • Determination of DR position
    • need for DR
    • confirmation of flight progress (mental DR)
    • lost procedures
    • heading and TAS vector since last confirmed position
    • application of wind velocity vector
    • last known track and ground speed vector
    • assessment of accuracy of DR position
  • Measurement of DR elements
    • calculation of altitude, adjustments, corrections, errors
    • determination of temperature
    • determination of appropriate speed
    • determination of mach number
  • Resolution of current DR problems by means of
    • mercator charts
    • lambert charts
    • polar stereographic projections
  • Measurement of
    • maximum range
    • radius of action
    • point-of-safe-return and point-of-equal-time
    • Miscellaneous DR uncertainties and practical means of correction

e) In-flight Navigation

  • Use of visual observations and application to in-flight navigation
  • Navigation in climb descent
    • average airspeed
    • average wind velocity
    • ground speed/distance covered during climb or descent
  • Navigation in cruising flight, use of fixes to revise navigation data as
    • ground speed revision
    • off-track corrections
    • calculation of wind speed and direction
    • ETA revisions
  • Flight log (including navigation records)

2. Mass and Balance - Aeroplanes

  1. Introduction to Mass and Balance Centre of gravity (cg): Definition, importance in regard to aircraft stability (Aeroplane)
    • Mass and balance
    • consult aeroplane flight manual for: cg limits for take-off, landing, cruise configurations
    • maximum floor load
    • maximum ramp and taxi mass (Aeroplane)
    • factors determining maximum permissible mass : structural limitations, performance limitations such as – runway available for take-off and landing, weather conditions (temperature, pressure, wind, precipitation); rate-of-climb and altitude requirements for obstacle clearance; engine-out performance requirements
    • factors determining cg limits: aircraft stability, ability of flight controls and surfaces to overcome mass and lift pitching moments under all flight conditions, changes in cg location during flight due to consumption of fuel, raising and lowering of undercarriage, and intentional relocation of passengers or cargo, transfer of fuel, movement of centre of lift because of changes in position of wing flaps
  1. Loading
    • Terminology: empty mass, dry operating mass (empty mass + crew + operating items + unusable fuel), zero fuel mass, standard mass – crew, passengers and baggage, fuel, oil water (volume/mass conversion factors), carry-on luggage, useful load (traffic load + usable fuel
    • Effects of overloading: high take-off and safety speeds, longer take-off and landing distances, lower rate-of-climb, influence on range and endurance, decreased engine-out performance, possible structural damage in extreme cases
  1. Centre of Gravity (cg)
    • basic of cg calculations (load and balance documentation)
      • Datum – explanation of term, location, use in cg calculation
      • Moment arm – explanation of term, determination of algebric signs, use
      • Moment – explanation, moment = mass x moment arm
      • Expression in percentage of mean aerodynamic chord (% MAC)
    • Calculation of CG; calculation of CG longitudinal and lateral
      • movement of CG with addition of fuel, load and ballast
      • practical methods of calculation – computation method using eight mathematical computations or specially designed slide rule, graph method, table method
      • Securing of load
      • importance of adequate tie-down
      • Effect of load-shift
      • movement of cg. Possible out of limits
      • possible damage due to inertia of a moving load
      • effect of acceleration of the aircraft load

1. Performance

  • Performance of Aeroplanes Take-off
    • definitions of terms and speeds used
      • appropriate speed definitions associated with take-off performance, with emphasis on:
        • V1: decision speed in event of engine failure on take- off
        • VR: rotation speed
        • V2: take-off safety speed
    • appropriate distance definitions associated with take-off:
      • balanced field length
      • take-off run available (TORA)
      • take-off distance available (TODA)
      • accelerate stop distance available (ASDA)
      • clearways, stopways
      • mass / altitude / temperature limits
    • other appropriate speeds: VMCG, VMCA, VMU, VLOF, VMBE
    • Runway variables
      • length, slope, surface
      • strength of runway (load classification number, single isolated wheel loading)
    • aeroplane variables: mass, flap angle, reduced power settings, increased V2, use of anti-ice and de-ice, used of bleed air (ECS)
    • Meteorological variables: pressure altitude and temperature (density altitude), wind gust factor, surface conditions (standing water, snow, ice etc.)
    • take-off speeds: computation of V1, VR and V2; initial climb speed, landing gear and flap retraction speeds
    • take-off distance
      • computations of take-off distance
      • include consideration of aeroplane, runway, and meteorological variables when computing take-off distance and take-off speed
      • effects of early or late rotation on take-off distance; possibility of ground stall with early rotation

b) Accelerate-stop distance

    • concept of balanced field length
      • review of definitions
      • relationship between balanced/unbalanced field length and V1
    • use of flight manual charts
      • computing accelerate-stop distances
        • decision time and deceleration procedure assumptions
        • time-to-decide allowance
        • use of brakes
        • use of reverse thrust
        • brake energy absorption limits: delayed temperature rise
        • tyre limitations

c) Initial Climb

    • climb segments: undercarriage and flap retraction, take- off mass limitation with regard to climb requirements
    • all engines operating : climb speed, rate of climb, noise abatement procedure
    • engine inoperative operation: best angle-of-climb speed, best rate-of-climb speed, rates of climb, effect of density altitude on climb performance
    • Obstacle clearance requirements : climb to clear obstacles, turning to avoid obstacles, effect turns have on climb performance

d) Climb

    • use of flight manual performance charts: effect of aeroplane mass, effect of density altitude change, time-to-climb calculations for reaching cruise altitude
    • significant airspeeds for climb
      • flap retraction speeds
      • normal (all engine operating) climb speeds – best rate-of-climb, best angle-of-climb
      • one engine inoperative climb
        • climb airspeeds: best rate-of-climb, best angle- of-climb
        • maximum cruise altitude

e) Cruise

    • use of cruise charts:determination of cruise altitudes, maximum attainable cruise altitudes, increase of maximum cruise speeds and power settings
    • cruise control
      • maximum range: power settings, speeds, fuel consumption
      • maximum endurance: power settings, speeds, fuel consumption
      • speed / range trade-offs, for cruise power settings
      • maximum cruise power settings: resultant speeds, fuel consumption
    • en-route one engine inoperative: engine inoperative charts, range and endurance, one-engine out service ceiling, maximum continuous power settings, ETOPS operations
    • obstacle clearance en-route: net flight path, vertical and horizontal, overhead mass limitations, drift-down procedures
    • en-route – aeroplanes with three or more engine, two engines inoperative
    • requirements and limitations

f) Descent and Landing

  • use of descent charts
    • time to start descent
    • fuel consumption in descent
    • limiting speed, e.g. : normal operating airspeed, maximum operating airspeed, speed for max. glide ratio, maximum rate of descent speed (cabin pressure rate of descent)
  • maximum permitted landing mass : structural limit specified by aircraft manufacturer and the state airworthiness authorities
  • approach and landing data calculations
    • suitability of selected landing runway: landing distance available, computation of maximum landing mass for the given conditions, computation of minimum runway length for the given, other factors – runway slope, surface conditions, wind temperature, density altitude
  • computation of expected actual landing mass
  • computations of approach and landing speeds
  • computations should be completed for alternate aerodromes as well
  • definitions of terms and speed used: VTH, threshold speed, discontinued approach climb, landing climb, landing distance, dry, wet and contaminated runways, landing distance required – destination airport, alternate airport
  • landing: landing configuration (all engine), approach configuration (one engine out)

g) Practical application of an Airplane Performance Manual

  • use of typical turbojet or turboprop aeroplane performance manual: take-off and landing mass calculations, take-off data computations
  • effects of runway variables, aeroplane variables and meteorological variables
    • computation of the various ‘V’ speeds for take-off and initial climb
    • computation of runway distance factors
    • rate and gradient of initial climb
    • obstacle clearance
    • appropriate engine-out calculations
  • climb computations:
    • climb rates and gradients
    • time-to-climb – fuel used
    • engine-out calculations
  • cruise computations
    • power settings and speeds for maximum range, maximum endurance and normal cruise
    • fuel consumption
    • engine-out operation; pressurization failure, effect of lower altitude on range and endurance
    • ETOPS (EROPS) flight
    • additional considerations concerning fuel consumption: effects of altitude and aircraft mass, fuel for holding, approach and cruise to alternate, in normal and abnormal conditions, after jet engine failure, after decompression

2. Flight Planning and Monitoring

  1. Flight Plans for Cross Country Flights
  • Navigation Plan
    • selection of routes, speeds, heights (altitudes) and alternate airfield/landing sites
      • terrain and obstacle clearance
      • cruising levels appropriate for direction of flight
      • navigation check points, visual or radio
    • measurement of tracks and distances
    • obtaining wind velocity forecast for each leg
    • computations of headings, ground speeds, and time en-route from tracks, true airspeed and wind velocities
    • completion of pre-flight portion of navigation flight log
  • Fuel Plan
  • computation of planned fuel usage for each leg and total fuel usage for the flight
    • flight manual figures for fuel flow during climb, en- route and during descent
    • navigation plan for times en-route
  • fuel for holding and diversion to alternate airfield
  • reserves
  • total fuel requirements for flight
  • completion of pre-flight portion of fuel log
  • Flight monitoring and in-flight re-planning
    • in-flight fuel computations
      • recording of fuel quantities remaining at navigational checkpoints
    • calculation of actual consumption rate
      • comparison of actual and planned fuel consumption and fuel state
    • Revision of fuel reserve estimates
    • in-flight re-planning in case of problems
      • selection of cruise altitude and power settings for new destination
      • time to new destination
      • fuel state, fuel requirements, fuel reserves
  • Radio communication and navigation aids
    • communication frequencies and call signs for appropriate control agencies and in-flight service facilities such as weather stations
    • radio navigation and approach aids, if appropriate
    • type
    • frequencies
    • identification

b) ICAO ATC Flight Plan

  • types of flight plan
    • ICAO flight plan – format
      • information included in completed plan
      • repetitive flight plan
    • completing the flight plan
      • information for flight plan obtained from
        • navigation flight plan
        • fuel plan
  • operator’s records for basic aircraft information
  • mass and balance records
  • Filling the flight plan
    • procedures for filing
    • agency responsible for processing the flight plan
    • Adherence to flight plan

c) Practical Flight Planning

  • Chart preparation
    • Plot tracks and measure directions and distances
  • Navigation plans
    • Completing the navigation plan using:
      • tracks and distances from prepared charts
      • wind velocities as provided
      • true airspeeds as appropriate
  • Simple fuel plans
    • Preparation of fuel logs showing planned values for:
      • fuel used on each leg
      • fuel remaining at the end of each leg
      • endurance, based on fuel remaining and planned consumption rate, at end of each leg
  • Radio planning practice
    • Communications
      • frequencies and call signs of air traffic control agencies and facilities and for in-flight services such as weather information
  • Navigation Aids
    • frequencies and identifiers of en-route terminal facilities, if appropriate

d) IFR (Airways) Flight Planning

  • meteorological considerations
    • analysis of existing weather patterns along possible routes
    • analysis of winds aloft along prospective routes
    • analysis of existing and forecast weather conditions at destination and possible alternates
  • Selection of routes to destinations and alternates
    • preferred airways routings
    • extraction of tracks and distances from NAV chart
    • Frequencies and identifiers of en-route radio navigation aids
    • minimum en-route altitudes, minimum crossing and reception altitudes
    • Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs) and Standard Arrival Routes (STARs)
  • General flight planning tasks
    • checking of AIP and NOTAM for latest airfield and en- route status information
    • selection of altitudes or flight levels for each leg of flight
    • application of wind velocity on each leg to obtain heading and ground speeds
    • calculation of en-route times for each leg to the destination and to the alternate and determination of total time en-route
    • completion of fuel plan
    • preliminary study of instrument approach procedures and minima at destination and alternate
    • filling out and filing air traffic flight plan

e) Jet Aeroplanes Flight Planning (Additional considerations)

Additional Flight Planning aspects for Jet aeroplanes (advanced Flight Planning)

  • Fuel planning
    • en-route contingency fuel
    • destination, holding and diversion fuel
    • isolated destination reserves
    • importance of altitude selection when planning for diversion to alternate
    • use of performance chart to plan fuel usage and requirements based on planned climb, en-route cruise and descent
    • reserve fuel requirements
    • influence of centre of gravity on fuel consumption
  • Computation of point-of-equal-time (PET) and point-of-safe return (PSR)


Computerized Flight Planning

  • General principles of present system
    • advantages
    • shortcomings and limitations

f) Practical Completion of a ‘Flight Plan’ (flight plan, flight log, Nav log ATC plan, etc.)

Extraction of data

    • extraction of navigational data
    • extraction of meteorological data
    • extraction of performance data
    • completion of navigation flight plan
    • completion of fuel plan
      • time and fuel to top-of-climb
      • cruise sector times and fuel used
      • total time and fuel required to destination
      • fuel required for missed approach, climb en- route altitude, and cruise alternate
      • reserve fuel

- Computation of PET (point-of-equal-time), including equi-fuel and equi-time points, and PSR (point-of-safe-return)

Aviation Meteorology

The Atmosphere

  1. Composition, extent, vertical division
  2. Temperature
    • vertical distribution of temperature
    • transfer of heat : solar and terrestrial radiation, conduction, convection, advection and turbulence
    • lapse rate, stability and instability
    • development of inversions, types of inversions
    • temperature near the earth’s surface, surface effects, diurnal
    • variation, effect of clouds, effect of wind
  1. Atmospheric pressure
    • barometric pressure, isobars
    • pressure variation with height, contours (isohypses)
    • reduction of pressure to mean sea level, QFF
    • surface low/upper-air low, surface high/upper-air high- precipitation
  1. Atmospheric density: interrelationship of pressure, temperature and density
  2. International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
  3. Altimetry
    • pressure altitude, true altitude
    • height, altitude, flight level
    • altimeter settings: QNH, QFE, 1013.25 hPa
    • calculation of terrain clearance, lowest usable flight level, rule of thumb for temperature and pressure influences
    • effect of accelerated airflow due to topography

1.2 Wind

  1. Definition and measurement
  2. Primary cause of wind
    • primary cause of wind, pressure gradient, coriolis force
    • gradient wind
    • relationship between isobars and wind
    • effects of convergence and divergence
  1. General circulation
    • general circulation around the globe
  1. Turbulence
    • Turbulence and gustiness, types of turbulence
    • origin and location of turbulence
  1. Variation of wind with height
    • variation of wind in the friction layer
    • variation of the wind caused by fronts
  1. Local winds: Anabatic and katabatic winds, land and sea breezes, venture effects
  2. Jet Streams
    • origin of jet streams
    • description and location of jet streams
    • names, heights and seasonal occurrence of jet streams
    • jet stream recognition
    • CAT: cause, location and forecasting
  1. Standing waves: Origin of standing waves

1.3 Thermodynamics

  1. Humidity
    • water vapour in the atmosphere
    • temperature/dew point, mixing ratio, relative humidity
  1. Change of state of aggregation: condensation, evaporation, sublimation, freezing and melting, latent heat
  2. Adiabatic processes

1.4 Clouds and Fog

  1. Clouds formation and description
    • cooling by adiabatic expansion and by advection
    • cloud types, cloud classification
    • influence of inversions on cloud development
    • flying conditions in each cloud type
  1. Fog, mist, haze
    • radiation fog
    • advection fog
    • steaming fog
    • frontal fog
    • orographic fog

1.5 Precipitation

  1. Development of precipitation
    • development of precipitation
    • types of precipitation
    • type of precipitation, relationship with cloud types

1.6 Air masses and Fronts

  1. Types of air masses
    • description, factors, affecting the properties of an air mass
    • classification of air masses, modifications of air masses, areas of origin
  1. Fronts
    • boundaries between air masses (fronts), general situation, geographic differentiation
    • warm front, associated clouds and weather
    • cold front, associated clouds and weather
    • Warm sector, associated clouds and weather
    • weather behind the cold front
    • occlusions, associated clouds and weather
    • stationary front, associated clouds and weather
    • movement of fronts and pressure systems, life cycle

1.7 Pressure Systems

  1. Location of the principal pressure areas
  2. Anticyclone: Anticyclones, types, general properties, cold and warm anticyclones, ridges and wedges, subsidence
  3. Non frontal depressions
    • thermal, orographic – and secondary depressions, cold air pools, trough
  4. Tropical revolving storms
    • development of tropical revolving storms
    • origin and local names, location and period of occurrence

1.8 Climatology

  1. Climatic zones
    • general seasonal circulation in the troposphere and lower stratosphere
    • tropical rain climate, dry climate, mid-latitude-climate, sub- arctical climate with cold winter, snow climate
  1. Indian Climatology
  2. Tropical climatology
    • cause and development of tropical showers: humidity, temperature, tropopause
    • seasonal variations of weather and wind, typical synoptic situation
    • inter Tropical convergence zones (ITCZ), weather in the ITCZ, general seasonal movement
    • climatic elements relative to the area (monsoon, trade winds, sand storms, cold air outbreaks)
    • easterly waves
  1. Typical weather situations in mid-latitudes
    • westerly waves
    • high pressure area
    • uniform pressure pattern
  1. Local seasonal weather and wind
    • local seasonal weather and wind
    • monsoon (South West and North East), pre-monsoon, post monsoon, northwesters, kal-baisakhis, western disturbance, Loo.
    • foehn, mistral, bora bora, scirocco
    • khamsin, harmattan, ghibbli and pampero

1.9 Flight Hazards

  1. Icing
    • weather conditions for ice accretion, topographical effects
    • types of ice accretion
    • hazards of ice accretion, avoidance
  1. Turbulence
    • effects on flight, avoidance
    • CAT: effects on flight
  2. Windshear
    • definition of windshear
    • weather conditions for windshear
    • effects on flight
  3. Thunderstorms
    • structure of thunderstorms, squall lines, life history, storm cells, electricity in the atmosphere, static charges
    • conditions for and process of development, forecast, location, type specification
    • Thunderstorm avoidance, ground/airborne radar, storm scope
    • development and effect of down bursts
    • development of lightning discharge and effect of lightning strike on aircraft and flight execution
  4. Tornadoes
  5. Low and high level inversions: Influence on aircraft performance
  6. Stratospheric conditions
    • tropopause influence on aircraft performance
    • effect of ozone, radioactivity
  1. Hazards in mountainous areas
    • influence of terrain on clouds and precipitation, frontal passage
    • vertical movements, mountain waves, windshear, turbulence, ice accretion
    • development and effect of valley inversions
  1. Visibility reducing phenomena
    • reduction of visibility caused by mist, smoke, dust, sand and precipitation
    • reduction of visibility caused by low drifting and blowing snow

1.10. Meteorological Information

  1. Observation
    • on the ground – surface wind, visibility and runway visual range, transmissometers; Clouds – type, amount, height of base and tops, movement; Weather – including all types of precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, dew point, atmospheric pressure
    • upper air observations
    • satellite observations, interpretation
    • weather radar observations ground and airborne, interpretation
    • aircraft observations and reporting, data link systems, PIREPS
  1. Weather Charts
    • significant weather charts
    • surface charts
    • upper air charts
    • symbols and signs on analysed and prognostic charts
  2. Information for Flight Planning
    • aeronautical codes: METAR, TAF, SPECI, SIGMET, SNOWTAM, runway report
    • meteorological broadcasts for aviation: VOLMET, ATIS, HFVOLMET, ACARS
    • content and use of pre-flight meteorological documents
    • meteorological briefing and advice
    • measuring and warning systems for low level windshear
    • inversion
    • special meteorological warnings
    • information for computer flight planning
Technical General

Aircraft and Engines

  • Airframe and Systems
  • Fuselage
    • types of construction
    • stress
  • Wings
    • types of construction
    • structural components
    • stress
    • Stabilizing surfaces
    • vertical, horizontal and V-tail surfaces
    • ‘flutter’
    • compensation system
    • mach trim
  • Landing Gear
    • types
    • locking devices and emergency extension systems
    • accidental retraction prevention devices
    • position, movement lights and indicators
    • nose wheel steering
    • wheels and tyres (limitations)
    • braking systems
      • parking brake
      • mode of operation of anti-skid system
      • mode of system of auto brake system
      • operation, indications and warning systems
  • Flight Controls
    • Primary controls:
      • elevator, aileron and rudder
      • trim
      • mode of actuation (mechanical, hydraulic, electrical, fly-by- wire)
      • operation, indicators, warning devices and controls)
      • efforts to transmit
    • Secondary controls:
      • leading and trailing edge lift augmentation devices
      • lift dumping and speed brakes
      • variable elevator
      • mode of actuation (mechanical, hydraulic, electrical, fly-by- wire)
      • operation, indicators, warning devices and controls)
      • danger situations and potential failures
  • Hydraulics
    • Basic principles of hydromechanics
      • hydraulic fluids
      • schematic construction and functioning of hydraulic systems
  • Hydraulic system
    • main, standby and emergency system
    • operation, indicators, warning system
    • ancillary system
  • Pneumatic system
    • power sources
    • schematic construction
    • potential failures, warning devices
    • operation, indicators, warning systems
    • pneumatic operated systems
  • Air-conditioning systems
    • construction, functioning, operation, indicators and warning devices
    • heating and cooling
    • temperature regulation
    • automatic and manual
    • ram air ventilation
    • schematic construction
  • Anti-ice systems
    • aerofoil and control surfaces, power plant, air intakes, windshield
    • schematic construction, operating limitations and initiation, timing of de-icing system usage
    • ice warning system
  • Pressurization
    • cabin altitude, maximum cabin altitude, differential pressure
    • pressurized zones in the aircraft
    • safety devices and warning systems
    • rapid decompression, cabin altitude warning
    • emergency procedures
  • Non-pneumatic operated de-ice and anti-ice systems
    • schematic construction, functioning and operation of:
      • air intake
      • propeller-pitot, static pressure sensor and stall warning devices
      • windshield
      • rain repellent system
  • Fuel system
    • Fuel tanks
      • structural components and types
      • location of tanks on single-and-multi-engine aircraft
      • sequence and types of re-fuelling
      • unusable fuel
  • Fuel feed
    • gravity and pressure feed
    • crossfeed
  • Fuel system monitoring
    • operating, indicators, warning systems
    • fuel management (sequencing of fuel tank switching)
    • dipstick

1.2 Electrics

  1. Director Current (DC); Direct /Alternating Current (DC/AC)
    • General
    • electric circuits
    • voltage, current, resistance
    • Ohm’s law
    • resistive circuits
    • resistance as a function of temperature
    • electrical power, electrical work
    • fuses (function, type and operation)
    • the electrical field
    • the capacitor (function) system, shock absorbers)
  • Batteries
    • types, characteristics
    • capacity
    • uses
    • hazards
  • Magnetism
    • permanent magnetism
    • electromagnetism:
      • relay, circuit breaker, solenoid valve (principle, function and applications)
      • electromagnetic power
      • electromagnetic induction
  • Generators
    • alternator:
      • principle, function and applications
      • monitoring devices
      • regulation, control and protection
      • modes of excitation
  • starter generator
  • Distribution
    • current distribution (buses)
    • monitoring of electrical flight instruments/systems:
      • ammeter, voltmeter
      • annunciators
  • electrical consumers
  • DC power distribution:
    • construction, operation and system monitoring
    • elementary switching circuits
  • Inverter
  • The aircraft structure as an electrical conductor
  1. Alternating Current (AC)
  • General
    • single and multi-phase AC
    • frequency
    • phase shift
  • AC components
  • Generators
    • 3-phase generator
    • brushless generator
    • generator drive:
      • constant speed drive
      • integrated drive
  • AC power distribution
    • operation and monitoring
    • protection circuits, paralleling of Ac-generators
  • Transformers
    • function
    • types and applications
  • Transformer/rectifier units
  1. Basic knowledge of computers
    • Logic circuits
    • Logical symbols
    • Switching circuits and logical symbols

1.3 Power Plant

  1. Piston engine General
    • design type
    • Principle of the 4-stroke internal combustion engine
    • Mechanical component
  2. Lubrication system
    • function
    • schematic construction
    • monitoring instruments and indicators
    • lubricants
  1. Air cooling
    • system monitoring
    • cylinder head temperature
    • cowl flaps
  1. Ignition
    • schematic construction and function
    • types of ignition
    • magneto check Engine fuel supply
    • carburetor (construction and mode of operation, carburetor icing)
    • fuel injection (construction and mode of operation)
    • alternate air
  1. Engine performance
    • pressure / density altitude
    • performance as a function of pressure and temperature
  1. Power augmentation devices
    • turbocharger, supercharger (construction and effect on engine performance)
  1. Fuel
    • types, grades
    • detonation characteristics, octane rating
    • colour coding
    • additives
    • water content, ice formation
    • fuel density
    • alternate fuels, differences in specifications, limitations
  1. Mixture
    • rich and lean mixture
    • maximum power and fuel economy mixture setting
  1. Propeller
    • fixed pitch and constant speed propeller
    • principles and operation of propellers on single and multi-engine aircraft
    • propeller check
    • propeller efficiency as a function of airspeed
    • aircraft and engine protection (propeller operation: ground/ air, coarse/fine pitch limitations)
  1. Engine handling and manipulation
    • power setting, power range
    • mixture setting
    • operational limitations
  1. Operational criteria
  • maximum and minimum RPM
  • (induced) engine vibration and critical RPM
  • remedial action by abnormal engine start run-up and inflight
  1. Turbine engine
    • principles of operation
    • types of construction
      • turboprop
      • turbojet
      • turbofan
  2. Engine construction
    • Air inlet
      • function
    • Compressor
      • function
      • construction and mode of operation
      • effects of damage
      • compressor stall and surge (cause and avoidance)
    • Diffuser
      • function
    • Combustion chamber
      • function, types and working principles
      • mixing ratios
      • fuel injectors
      • thermal load
    • Turbine
      • function, construction and working principles
      • thermal and mechanical stress
      • effects of damage
      • monitoring of exhaust gas temperature
    • Jet pipe
      • function
      • different types
      • noise silencing devices
    • Pressure, temperature and airflow in a turbine engine
    • Reverse thrust
      • function, types and principles of operation
      • degree of efficiency
      • use and monitoring
    • Performance and thrust augmentation
      • water injection, principles of operation
      • use and system monitoring
    • Bleed air
      • effect of use of bleed air on thrust, exhaust temperature, RPM and pressure ratio
    • Auxiliary gearbox
      • function

Engine systems

    • Ignition
      • function, types, components, operation, safety aspects
    • Starter
      • function, type, construction and mode of operation
    • control and monitoring
    • self sustaining and idle speeds
    • Engine start malfunctions
      • cause and avoidance
    • Fuel system
      • schematic diagrams, components
      • operation and monitoring
      • malfunctions
    • Lubrication
      • components
      • operation and monitoring
      • malfunctions
    • Fuel
      • effects of temperature
      • impurities
      • additives
    • Thrust
      • thrust formula
      • flat rated engine
      • thrust as a function of airspeed, air density, pressure, temperature and RPM
      • power plant operation and monitoring
  1. Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
  • General
    • function, types
    • location
    • operation and monitoring
  • Ram air turbine
    • function

1.4 Emergency Equipment

  1. Doors and emergency exits
    • evacuation slides, general usage or as life rafts or flotation devices
  1. Smoke detection
    • location, indicators, function test
  1. Fire detection
    • location, warning mode, function test
  1. Fire fighting equipment
    • location, operation, contents, gauge, function test
  1. Aircraft oxygen equipment
    • drill, use of equipment in case of rapid decompression
    • oxygen generators
  1. Hydraulic systems
    • components, fluids
    • operation, indication, warning systems
    • auxiliary systems
  1. Emergency equipment
    • portable, hand-held fire extinguisher
    • smoke mask, smoke protection hood]
    • portable oxygen system
    • emergency locator beacon, transmitter
    • life jacket, life raft
    • pocket lamp, emergency lighting
    • megaphone
    • cash axe
    • fireproof gloves
    • emergency flotation system

Principles of Flight

  • Subsonic Aerodynamics
  1. Basics Laws and Definitions
  • Laws and definitions
    • units
    • laws of Newton
    • ideal gas equation
    • equation of impulse
    • equation of continuity
    • Bernoulli’s theorem
    • static pressure
    • dynamic pressure
    • viscosity
    • density
    • IAS, CAS, EAS, TAS
  • Basics about airflow
    • stationary airflow
    • not stationary airflow
    • streamline
    • stream tube
    • two-dimensional airflow
    • three-dimensional airflow
  • Aerodynamic forces on surfaces
    • resulting air force
    • lift
    • drag
    • angle of attack
    • forces and equilibrium of forces during climb, level, descent and turn
  • Shape of an aerofoil
    • thickness of chord ratio
    • chordline
    • camberline
    • nose radius
    • camber
    • angle of attack
    • angle of incidence
  • The wing shape
    • aspect ratio
    • root chord
    • tip chord
    • tapered wings
    • shape of wing surface
    • mean aerodynamic chord (MAC)
  1. The two-dimensional airflow about an aerofoil
    • streamline pattern
    • stagnation point
    • pressure distribution
    • centre of pressure
    • lift and downwash
    • drag and wake (loss of impulse)
    • influence of angle of attack
    • flow separation at high angles of attack
    • the lift-graph
  1. The coefficients
  • The lift coefficient C
    • the lift formula
    • CL – α graph
    • CLmax and α
    • normal values of CLmax, αcrit, stall, and the slope of the CL /A.o.A curve
  • The drag coefficient CD
    • the drag formulas:
    • zero lift drag
    • lift induced drag
    • CD – α graph
    • CL – CD graph, profile polar
    • CL – CD ratio
    • normal values of the CL – CD ratio
  1. The three-dimensional airflow about an aeroplane
  • Streamline pattern
    • span-wise flow and causes
    • tip vortices and local α
    • tip vortices and angle of attack
    • up-wash and down-wash due to tip vortices
    • span-wise lift distribution
    • wake turbulence behind an aircraft (causes, distribution, duration of the phenomenon)
  • Induced drag
    • influence of tip vortices on the angle of attack
    • the induced local α
    • influence of induced angle of attack on the direction of the lift vector
    • induced drag and angle of attack
    • induced drag and speed
    • induced drag and wing aspect ratio
    • induced drag and wing planform
    • induced drag coefficient
    • induced drag coefficient and angle of attack
    • influence of the induced drag on the CL – α graph
    • influence of the induced drag on the CL – CD graph, airplane lift drag ratio
    • influence of plan of section
    • winglets
    • wing span loading
    • influence of wing twist
  1. The total drag
  • influence of change of camber
    • the parasite drag
    • profile drag
    • interference drag
    • friction drag
    • The profile drag and speed
    • the induced drag and speed
    • the total drag
    • the total drag and speed
    • minimum drag
    • the drag – speed graph
  1. The ground effect
    • effect on CDi
    • effect on αcrit
    • effect on CL
  • Effect on take-off and landing characteristics of an aircraft
  1. The relation between the lift coefficient and the speed for constant lift
    • as a formula
    • in a graph
  1. The stall
  • Flow separation at increasing angles of attack
    • the boundary layer:
      • laminar layer
      • turbulent layer
      • transition
    • separation point
    • influence of angle of attack
    • influence on:
      • pressure distribution
      • location of centre of pressure
    • CL
    • CD
    • pitch moments
    • down-wash at horizontal stabilizer
    • buffet
    • use of controls
  • The stall speed
    • in the lift formula
    • 1g stall speed
  • influence of:
    • the centre of gravity
    • power setting
    • altitude / IAS
    • wing loading
  • load factor n:
    • definition
  • turns
  • forces
  • The initial stall in span-wise direction
    • influence of plan form
    • aerodynamic twist (wash out)
    • geometric twist
    • use of ailerons
    • influence of fences, vortilons, saw teeth and vortex generators
  • Special phenomena of stall
    • the power-on stall
    • climbing and descending turns
    • swept back wings
    • super- or deep-stall, stick pusher
    • canards
    • T-tailed aircraft
    • avoidance of spins:
      • spin development
      • spin recognition
      • spin recovery
  • ice (in stagnation point and on surface):
    • absence of stall warning
  • abnormal behaviour of the stall
  • stabilizer stall
  • Stall warning
    • importance of stall warning
    • speed margin
    • buffet
    • stall strip
    • flapper switch
    • AOA vane
    • AOA probe
    • stick shaker
    • recovery from stall
  1. CLmax augmentation
  • Trailing edge flaps and the reasons for use in take-off and landing
    • different types of flaps:
      • split flap
      • plain flap
      • slotted flap
      • fowler flap
  • their influence on the CL – α graph
  • their influence on the CL – CD graph
  • flap asymmetry
  • influence on pitch movement
  • Leading edge devices and the reasons for use in take-off and landing
  • different types:
    • Krueger flaps
    • variable camber flaps
    • slats
  • their influence on the CL – α graph
  • their influence on the CL – CD graph
  • slat asymmetry
  • normal/automatic operation
  • Vortex generators
    • aerodynamic principles
    • advantages
    • disadvantages
  1. Means to decrease the CL – CD ratio, increasing drag
  • Spoilers and the reasons for use in the different phases of flight
    • different functions:
      • flight spoilers (speedbrakes)
      • ground spoilers (lift dumpers)
      • roll spoilers
      • spoiler-mixer
  • their influence on the CL - α graph
  • their influence on the CL – CD graph and ratio
  • Speedbrakes as a means of increasing drag and the reasons for use in the different phases of flight
    • the influence on the CL – CD graph ratio
  1. The boundary layer
  • Different types
    • laminar
    • turbulent
  • Their advantages and disadvantages on pressure drag and friction drag
  1. Special circumstances
  • Ice and other contamination
    • ice in stagnation point
    • ice on the surface (frost, snow, clear ice)
    • rain
    • contamination of the leading edge
    • effects on stall
    • effects on loss of controllability
    • effects on control surface movement
    • influence on high lift devices during take-off, landing and low speeds
    • affect on lift/drag ratio
  • Deformation and modification of airframe, ageing aircraft

2.2 Transonic Aerodynamics

  • The Mach number definition
    • speed of sound
    • influence of temperature and altitude
    • compressibility
  • Normal shockwaves
    • Mcrit and exceeding Mcrit
    • Influence of:
      • mach number
      • control deflection
      • angle of attack
      • aerofoil thickness
      • angle of sweep
      • area ruling
      • CL – α graph
      • CLmax
      • CD
      • CL – CD
  • Aerodynamic heating
  • Shock stall / Mach buffet
  • Influence on:
    • drag
    • pitch (Mach trim):
      • contribution of:
        • movement of the centre of pressure
        • angle of sweep
        • down-wash
  • Buffet margin, aerodynamic ceiling
  • Means to avoid the effects of exceeding Mcrit
    • Vortex generators
    • Supercritical profile
      • shape
      • influence of aerofoil shape on shockwaves
      • advantages and disadvantages of supercritical aerofoil

2.3 Stability

  1. Condition of equilibrium in stable horizontal flight
    • a precondition for static stability
    • sum of moments
      • lift and weight
      • drag and thrust
    • sum of forces
      • in horizontal plane
      • in vertical plane
  1. Methods of achieving balance
    • Wing and empennage (tail and canard)
    • control surfaces
    • Ballast or weight trim
  1. Longitudinal stability
    • Basics and definitions
    • Static stability, positive, neutral and negative
    • precondition for dynamic stability
    • dynamic stability, positive, neutral and negative
    • damping:
    • phugoid
    • short period
    • effect of high altitude on dynamic stability
    • static stability
    • neutral point/location of neutral point
      • definition
  • Contribution of:
    • aircraft geometry
    • down-wash
      • c. of the wing
  • Location of centre of gravity
    • aft limit, minimum stability margin
    • forward position
    • effects on static and dynamic stability
  • The CM – α graph
  • Contribution of:
    • location of centre of gravity
    • control deflection
  • major aircraft parts (wings, fuselage, tail)
  • configuration:
  • flap deflection
  • gear extension
  • The elevator position – speed graph (IAS)
  • Contribution of;
    • location of centre of gravity
    • trim (trim tab)
    • trim (stabilizer trim)
    • Mach number/Mach trim
    • friction in the system
    • down spring
    • bob weight
  • The manoeuvring /stick force per g
  • Contribution of:
    • location of centre of gravity
    • trim
    • down spring
    • bob weight
  • Stick force per g and the limit load factor
    • category of certification
  • Special circumstances
    • ice:
      • effects of flap extension
      • effects of stabilizer ice
      • rain
      • deformation of airframe
  1. Static directional stability
    • Slip angle ß
    • Yaw moment coefficient CN
    • CN – ß graph
    • Contribution of :
      • location of centre of gravity
      • angle of sweep of the wing
      • fuselage at high angles of attack
      • strakes
      • dorsal fin and angle of sweep of fin
      • major aircraft parts
  2. Static lateral stability
    • Bank angle ø
    • The roll moment coefficient CL
    • Contribution of angle of slip ß
    • The CL – ß graph
    • Contribution of:
      • angle of sweep of wing
      • ventral fin
      • location of the wing
      • dihedral / anhedral
  • Effective lateral stability
  1. Dynamic lateral stability
    • effects of asymmetric propeller slipstream
    • Tendency to spiral dive
    • Dutch roll
      • causes
      • Mach
      • yaw damper
    • Effects of altitude on dynamic stability

2.4 Control

  1. General
    • Basics, the Three Planes and Three Axis
    • Camber change
    • Angle of attack change
  1. Pitch Control
    • Elevator
    • Down-wash effects
    • Ice on tail
    • Location of centre of gravity
  1. Yaw Control
    • Pedal/Rudder ratio changer
    • Moments due to engine thrust
      • direct
      • induced
  • Engine failure
    • rudder limitations at asymmetric thrust
    • meaning of VMCA, VMCG
  1. Roll Control
  • Ailerons
    • inboard ailerons
    • outboard ailerons
    • function in different phases of flight
  • Spoilers
  • Adverse yaw
  • Means to avoid adverse yaw
    • frise ailerons
    • differential aileron deflection
    • coupling ailerons to rudder by spring
    • roll spoilers
    • effects of asymmetric propeller slip stream
  1. Interaction in different planes (yaw/roll)
    • limitations of asymmetric power
  2. Means to reduce control forces
  • Aerodynamic balance
    • nose balance
    • horn balances
    • internal balances
    • balance tab, anti-balance tab
    • servo tab
    • spring tab
  • Artificial
    • power-assisted controls
    • fully powered controls
    • artificial feel:
      • inputs:
        • dynamic pressure q
        • stabilizer setting
  1. Mass Balance
    • reasons to balance
      • means
  2. Trimming
    • reasons to trim
    • trim tabs
    • stabilizer trim/trim rate versus IAS
      • position of centre of gravity influence on trim/stabilizer setting for take-off
  • Limitations
  1. Operating limitations
    • flutter
    • aileron reversal
    • gear/flap operating
  • MMO
  1. Maneuvering envelope
    • Maneuvering load diagram
      • load factor
    • accelerated stall speed
    • VA, VC, VD
    • maneuvering limit load factor/certification category
  • Contribution of:
    • mass
    • altitude
    • Mach number
  1. Gust Envelope
    • Gust load diagram
      • vertical gust speeds
      • accelerated stall speed
      • VB, VC, VD
      • gust limit load factor
      • VRA
  • Contribution of:
    • mass
    • altitude
    • Mach number
  • Propellers
  1. Conversion of engine torque to thrust
    • meaning of pitch
    • blade twist
    • fixed pitch and variable pitch/constant speed
    • propeller efficiency versus speed
    • effects of ice on propeller
  2. Engine failure or engine stop
  • Windmilling drag
    • influence on yaw moment when asymmetric power
  • Feathering
    • influence on glide performance
    • influence on yaw moment when asymmetric power
  1. Design feature of power absorption
    • aspect ratio of blade
    • diameter of propeller
    • number of blades
    • propeller noise
  1. Moments and couples due to propeller operation
    • Torque reaction
    • Gyroscopic precession
    • Asymmetric slipstream effect
    • Asymmetric blade effect
    • Flight Mechanics
  1. Forces action on an airplane
    • Straight horizontal steady flight
    • Straight steady climb
    • Straight steady descent
    • Straight steady glide
    • Steady coordinated turn
      • bank angle
      • load factor
      • turn radius
    • angular velocity
    • rate one turn
  1. Asymmetric Thrust
    • Moments about the vertical axis
    • Influence of bank angle
      • overbanking
      • finstall
    • Influence of aircraft weight
    • Influence of use of ailerons
    • Influence of special propeller effects on roll moments
      • propeller torque
      • propeller wash on flaps
    • Influence of slipangle on roll moments
    • VMCA
    • VMCL
    • VMCG
    • Influence of altitude
  1. Emergency Descent
    • Influence of configuration
    • Influence of chosen mach number and IAS
    • Typical points on polar curve
  1. Windshear